Máy phát điện Xoay chiều

Máy phát điện xoay chiều là một thiết bị tạo ra dòng điện xoay chiều, có 2 loại máy phát điện xoay chiều là máy phát điện xoay chiều 1 pha và máy phát điện xoay chiều 3 pha

Máy phát điện xoay chiều một pha

máy phát điện tạo ra dòng điện xoay chiều một pha

Cấu tạo và hoạt động.

cau tao may phat dien xoay chieu 1 pha
Cấu tạo máy phát điện xoay chiều 1 pha

 

+ Cấu tạo máy phát điện xoay chiều 1 pha gồm 2 bộ phận chính:        

Phần cảm : là nam châm vĩnh cữu hay nam châm điện: phần tạo ra từ trường.

Phần ứng  : là những cuộn dây, trong đó xuất hiện suất điện động cảm ứng.

Một trong hai phần đặt cố định gọi là stato, phần còn lại quay quanh một trục gọi là roto.

+ Hoạt động: Khi rôto quay, từ thông qua cuộn dây biến thiên, trong cuộn dây xuất hiện suất điện động cảm ứng, suất điện động này được đưa ra ngoài để sử dụng.

Tần số của dòng điện xoay chiều.

Nếu máy có p cặp cực và rô to quay n vòng trong 1 giây thì f = np.

Nếu máy có p cặp cực và rô to quay n vòng trong 1 phút thì f = p.

Thông thường tại Việt Nam các thiết bị sử dụng điện có f = 50Hz

Máy phát điện xoay chiều ba pha

Là một thiết bị tao ra dòng điệu xoay chiều 3 pha

Cấu tạo và nguyên tắc hoạt động.

cau tao may phat dien xoay chieu 3 pha
Cấu tạo máy phát điện xoay chiều 3 pha

 

Phần cảm : là nam châm điện: phần tạo ra từ trường.

Phần ứng : cấu tạo gồm stato có ba cuộn dây riêng rẽ, hoàn toàn giống nhau quấn trên ba lỏi sắt đặt lệch nhau  trên một vòng tròn.

Khi rôto quay đều, các suất điện động cảm ứng xuất hiện trong ba cuộn dây có cùng biên độ, cùng tần số nhưng lệch nhau về pha là

Nếu nối các đầu dây của ba cuộn với ba mạch ngoài (ba tải tiêu thụ) giống nhau thì ta có hệ ba dòng điện cùng biên độ, cùng tần số nhưng lệch nhau về pha là 120 độ

Cách mắc mạch ba pha

dong dien trong may phat dien xoay chieu
Cách đi dây máy phát điện xoay chiều 3 pha

 

Điện lưới chúng ta đang sử dụng là điện xoay chiều 3 pha. Nhưng thông thường thì các thiết bị trong gia đình lại là các thiết bị 1 pha nên chúng ta chỉ sử dụng 1 pha. Một số công trình có mức tiêu thụ điện khá lớn ( Các tòa nhà, sử dụng đầu vào là điện 3 pha và sử dụng máy phát điện dự phòng.khi đó khi đi dây các kỹ sư điện phải tính toán để chia đều các pha sử dụng công suất bằng nhau để khi sử dụng máy phát điện dự phòng đảm bảo công suất sử dụng ở các pha là như nhau

Phần này nhiều người sẽ không hiểu , Vậy khi sử dụng bạn nên sử dụng máy phát điện xoay chiều 1 pha hay máy phát điện xoay chiều 3 pha ????

Tham khảo : Nên sử dụng máy phát điện 1 pha hay máy phát điện 3 pha

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